Racism and Health

Examining Cyberbullying and Reactions to Systemic Racism (PDF)

Declarations of racism as a public health issue


"Racism is a system of structuring opportunity and assigning value based on the social interpretation of how one looks (which is what we call "race"), that unfairly disadvantages some individuals and communities, unfairly advantages other individuals and communities, and saps the strength of the whole society through the waste of human resources."
-- APHA Past-President Camara Phyllis Jones, MD, MPH, PhD

Racism structures opportunity and assigns value based on how a person looks. The result: conditions that unfairly advantage some and unfairly disadvantage others. Racism hurts the health of our nation by preventing some people the opportunity to attain their highest level of health.

Racism may be intentional or unintentional. It operates at various levels in society. Racism is a driving force of the social determinants of health (like housing, education and employment) and is a barrier to health equity.  

masked black woman at protest holding up I Have Value sign next to American flagTo achieve health equity and create the Healthiest Nation in One Generation, we must address injustices caused by racism. We must support actions at all levels to ensure equal opportunity for all.

How do we do that? Through racial healing (#RxRacialHealing). That means using a healing and heart-centered approach to get rid of the false belief that any people are superior to others based on their skin color.


Racial Equity fact sheet (PDF)

APHA expresses relief and hope in response to justice delivered for George Floyd

Racism is an ongoing public health crisis that needs our attention now

APHA calls out police violence as a public health crisis

Letter from APHA to the House of Representatives in support of H.R. 1280, the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act of 2021 (PDF)

Letter to President-elect Joe Biden urging swift repeal of ban on trainings that address racial and sex stereotyping (PDF)

Communities recognizing racism as a public health crisis (The Nation's Health)

APHA webinar series: Advancing Racial Equity

APHA webinar series: The Impact of Racism on the Health and Well-Being of the Nation 

From APHA Press: Racism: Science and Tools for the Public Health Professional

Webinar: A Tale of Two Pandemics: How COVID-19 and Racism Intersect With Intimate Partner Violence

APHA policy statement: Addressing Police Violence as a Public Health Issue

Racism is undeniably a public health issue (APHA's Georges Benjamin in Popular Science)

"We need to change things so that we value all people equally."(Benjamin on PBS News Hour)

Ending police violence requires public-health based approach (The Nation's Health)

Rooting out systemic racism in America: A Q&A with Keon Gilbert (The Nation's Health)

Letter to Congress in support of H.R. 7120, The George Floyd Justice in Policing Act of 2020 (PDF)

Dozens of Cities Dub Racism a Public Health Crisis (Bloomberg CityLab)

Racism can shape decisions to practice in underserved communities (The Nation's Health)

Testifying before the Helsinki Commission, Gail Christopher details innovative approach toward eliminating racism and facilitating healing in the United States 

Programs work from within to prevent black maternal deaths: Workers targeting root cause — Racism (The Nation's Health)

Achieving environmental justice in the 21st century: The way forward (APHA/National Environmental Health Partnership Council webinar)

Historic lynching tied to mortality today (The Nation's Health)

Why ending police violence is a public health issue: A Q & A with APHA's Georges Benjamin (The Nation's Health

APHA's Georges Benjamin on Severe weather disasters, health & structural racism: a critical intersection

From CNN: Charlottesville, hate crimes are public health issue, experts say  


APHA Policy Statements
American Journal of Public Health

OCTOBER 2019 AJPHRacial Biases And Health Disparities: 400 Years Since Jamestown

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Lethal Police Force by US police, 2010-2014 

Unequal Burdens of Loss: Examining the Frequency and Timing of Homicide Deaths Experienced by Young Black Men Across the Life Course

Under the Radar: How Unexamined Biases in Decision-Making Processes in Clinical Interactions Can Contribute to Health Care Disparities

A Life Course Perspective on How Racism May Be Related to Health Inequities

Characterizing Perceived Police Violence: Implications for Public Health

Critical Race Theory, Race Equity, and Public Health: Toward Antiracism Praxis

A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship Between Institutional and Individual Racial Discrimination and Health Status 

Levels of Racism: A Theoretic Framework and a Gardener's Tale

Does Racism Harm Health? Did Child Abuse Exist Before 1962? On Explicit Questions, Critical Science, and Current Controversies: An Ecosocial Perspective

Methods for the Scientific Study of Discrimination and Health: An Ecological Approach 

The Structuring of Ethnic Inequalities in Health: Economic Position, Racial Discrimination and Racism

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Self-Reported Racism and its Association With Cancer-related Health Behaviors

The Lived Experience of Race and Its Health Consequences

Paved With Good Intentions: Do Public Health and Human Service Providers Contribute to Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health?

Racial/Ethnic Variations in Women’s Health: The Social Embededness of Health

Environmental Racism and Public Health

Aggressive Policing and the Mental Health of Young Urban

Black Lives Matter: A Commentary on Racism and Public Health

Current Initiatives and Resource Guides
The Nation’s Health

W.K. Kellogg Foundation Annual Report (2015). FOR 2016, LET’S REVIVE THE PASSION FOR RACIAL EQUITY A letter from La June Montgomery Tabron, President & CEO of W.K. Kellogg Foundation

Institute of Medicine (2003). Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Commission to Build a Healthier America (2009). Race and Socioeconomic Factors Affect Opportunities for Better Health

The Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change (2004). Structural Racism and Community Building

The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies & PolicyLink (2004). Building Stronger Communities for Better Health

Audio and Video
National Data and Useful Links

National Center for Health Statistics: Data on Racial and Ethnic Disparities (2018). http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/factsheets/factsheet_disparities.pdf

National Center for Health Statistics: Data Brief (2010) Hypertension, High Serum Total Cholesterol, and Diabetes: Racial and Ethnic Prevalence Differences in U.S. Adults, 1999–2006

National Vital Statistics Reports

National Health Interview Survey

Advocacy Organizations

W.K.Kellogg Foundation

Useful Links and Resources

United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (2014)

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Racial Equity Will be Achieved When...

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Advancing Racial Equity T-shirt

Webinar series


Healing Through Policy

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From APHA Press

cover of Racism: Science and Tools for the Public Health Professional

Black Lives Matter

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